Articles Marxism

Sendero Luminoso (Sendero, The Shining Path) (Analysis by Antonio Sajor)

Friday, February 19th, 2016

Group Name: Sendero Luminoso (Sendero, The Shining Path)

Principal Ideology: Communism (Maoist)

Area of Operation: Peru/Andes Mountains

Leadership: Abimael Guzman

Affiliated Groups: Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian drug traffickers

Principal Enemy: Established Democratic Peruvian Government

Tactics: Insurgent but also using terror tactics while incarcerated

Sendero Luminoso (Sendero) is a communism inspired terrorist group whose push for a political revolution in Peru occurred primarily between 1980 and 1995. Sendero’s ideology is a product of the communist teachings of Peruvian writer Jose Carlos Mariategui, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, and Mao Zedong.[1] While attending the Universidad Nacional de San Cristobal de Huamanga in Ayacucho, Abimael Guzman became angered by the plight of the peasants who were struggling to survive economically. Guzman was inspired as a student by Marx, Lenin, and Zedong and would later teach Maoist doctrine and philosophy after graduation.[2] Guzman became active in the Peruvian Communist Party, and would go on to attend a communist cadre school in China, embracing a peasant-based Maoist philosophy upon returning to Peru.[3] He would splinter from the Peruvian Communist Party and found the Communist Party of Peru; commonly known as the “Shining Path”/ Sendero Luminoso, and father his Maoist based ideology “Gonzalo Thought”.[4]


Revolutionary Organization 17 November (Analysis by Steven Dubay)

Sunday, February 14th, 2016

Group Name: Revolutionary Organization 17 November

Principal Ideology: Marxist-Leninist (radical leftist)

Are of Operation: Greece

Leadership: Christodoulos Xiros (currently imprisoned in Greece)

Affiliated Groups: Possibly both Revolutionary Struggle (RS) and Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei (SPF – Synomosia Pyrinon Tis Fotias)

Principal Enemy: Hellenic government

Tactics: Assassination through shooting and bombing, also use bombs for property destruction

Established in 1975, the Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17N) was placed on the United States’ (US) Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) list on October 8, 1997.[1] The group has remained on the list continuously since its original identification as a terrorist organization. 17N was placed on the FTO list due to assassinations of US diplomats and military personnel.[2] Their first attack was the assassination of the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) Richard Welch on December 23, 1975. Their last attack was June 8, 2000, killing British diplomat Stephen Saunders.[3] There were no known attacks by 17N during 2014.[4]

17N is an Athens, Greece Marxist-Leninist terrorist group with declared hatred for the Greek government, the United States (U.S.), and Turkey. 17N desires the removal of U.S. military bases from Greece, the removal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus, and ending Greece’s participation in both the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Community (EC).[5] The group’s name was derived from the November 17, 1973 protests at Athens Polytechnic University.[6]


Epanastatikos Aghonas [The Revolutionary Struggle] (Analysis by James Cook)

Sunday, February 14th, 2016

Group Name: Epanastatikos Aghonas [The Revolutionary Struggle]

Principal Ideology: Leftist / Marxist / Anarchist

Area of Operation: Greece

Leadership: Nikos Maziotis

Affiliated Groups: Revolutionary Organization 17 November (N17), Revolutionary People’s Struggle (ELA)

Principal Enemy: Greek Government; Capitalist ideology

Tactics: Insurgent; bombings; assassination; targeting of government officials

The Revolutionary Struggle (RS) is a terrorist organization that operates primarily in Greece.[1] RS rose to prominence following the demise of the Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17N) in the summer of 2002.[2] Since its first operation in September of 2003, the RS has plotted and carried out major attacks of varying success on fourteen separate occasions, along with scores of other smaller robberies and criminal acts.[3] Following their initial attack in 2003, members of the RS distributed literature throughout the Greek media and on the internet explaining the basis of their cause. The literature was broad and listed a number of grievances including problems with the Greek Establishment, the trial of members of the 17N, globalization, hatred of the United States-led war on terror, and various other contemporary issues.[4]An analysis of the statements made by the group, combined with an examination of their background and activities will provide a clear framework to better analyze the overall organization.